The cover was made from binder's board cut to size. Fabric was superglued to the interior of the binder's board and then stuffed with poly stuffing. Interior cover pages were glued in with extra-strong glue dots and the ribbon on the exterior was also affixed with the same glue dots. I had the embroidery done by machine by someone with more experience and confidence than I! Binding is done with simple scrapbook screw posts.